Thursday, 12 November 2015


36. X – = Y + 1 means

(A) X=X– Y +1
(B) X = –X – Y – 1
(C) X=–X+Y+1
(D) =X– Y – 1


37. Handoff is the mechanism that

(A) transfer an ongoing call from
one base station to another
(B) initiating a new call
(C) dropping an ongoing call
(D) none of above


38. Which one of the following statement is false ?

(A) Context-free languages are closed under union.
(B) Context-free languages are closed under concatenation.
(C) Context-free languages are closed under intersection.
(D) Context-free languages are closed under Kleene closure.


Explanation:- CFL's are closed under union, concatenation, and Kleene closure. But not under intersection or difference. So the correct answer is option C.

39. All of the following are examples of real security and privacy risks except

(A) Hackers
(B) Spam
(C) Viruses
(D) Identify theft


40. Identify the incorrect statement :

(A) The ATM adoption layer is not service dependent.
(B) Logical connections in ATM are referred to as virtual channel connections.
(C) ATM is streamlined protocol with minimal error and flow control capabilities
(D) ATM is also known as cell delays.


41. Software risk estimation involves following two tasks :

(A) Risk magnitude and risk impact
(B) Risk probability and risk impact
(C) Risk maintenance and risk impact
(D) Risk development and risk impact


42. The number of bits required for an IPV6 address is

(A) 16
(B) 32
(C) 64
(D) 128


43. The proposition ~ q–vp is equivalent to

(B) q→p
(C) p↔q
(D) p∨q


44. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

(A) has existed for over a decade.
(B) does not integrate well with the functional areas other than operations.
(C) is inexpensive to implement.
(D) automate and integrates the majority of business processes.


45. Which of the following is false concerning Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) ?

(A) It attempts to automate and integrate the majority of business processes.
(B) It shares common data and practices across the enterprise.
(C) It is inexpensive to implement.
(D) It provides and access information in a real-time environment.


46. To compare, overlay or cross analyze to maps in GIS

(A) both maps must be in digital form
(B) both maps must be at the same equivalent scale.
(C) both maps must be on the same coordinate system
(D) All of the above


47. Web Mining is not used in which of the following areas ?

(A) Information filtering
(B) Crime fighting on the internet
(C) Online transaction processing
(D) Click stream analysis.


48. A telephone conference call is an example of which type of communications ?

(A) same time / same place
(B) same time / different place
(C) different time / different place
(D) different time / same place


49. What is the probability of choosing correctly an unknown integer between 0 and 9 with 3 chances ?

(A) 963/1000
(B) 973/1000
(C) 983/1000
(D) 953/1000


The number of nodes in a complete binary tree of height h (with roots at level 0) is equal to (A) 20 + 21 + ..... 2h
(B) 20 + 21 + ..... 2h – 1
(C) 20 + 21 + ..... 2h + 1
(D) 21 + ..... 2h + 1



4. What is Granularity ?

(A) The size of database
(B) The size of data item
(C) The size of record
(D) The size of file


Explanation:- Granularity refers to the size of any data item. It could be a tuple, relation, database,anything. So the option is B.

5. Suppose that a given application is run on a 64-processor machine and that 70 percent of the application can be parallelized. Then the expected performance improvement using Amdahl’ s law is

(A) 4.22
(B) 3.22
(C) 3.32
(D) 3.52


According to Amdahl's law, in case of parallelization,if P is the proportion of the program that can be made parallel, then (1-P) is the proportion that cannot be parallelized. Then the maximum speedup that can be achieved by using N processor is, S(N)=1/(1-P)+P/N where N refers to the no of processors, and P refers to the proportion that can be parallelized.
In the question above, no of processor, N=64
The proportion of the program that can be made parallel, P = 70%=0.7
So, substituting in the formula, we get, 1/(1-0.7)+0.7/64=1/0.3+0.0109375=1.0.310975
Therefore, the option is B.

6. If two fuzzy sets A and B are given with membership functions μA(x) = {0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 0.5, 0.1} μB(x) = {0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.3, 0.2} Then the value of μ ––– willbe A∩B

(A) {0.9, 0.7, 0.4, 0.8, 0.9}
(B) {0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 0.5, 0.2}
(C) {0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.3, 0.1}
(D) {0.7, 0.3, 0.4, 0.2, 0.7}


The fuzzy intersection of two fuzzy sets A and B on universe of discourse X: μA∩B(x) = min [μA(x), μB(x)] , where x∈X
But here in the question, they are asking for complement of AintersectionB and so the answer would be 1-min[A(x),B(x)]. The minimum of 0.2 and 0.1 will be 0.1, and 1-0.1 will be 0.9. The second value is min(0.4,0.3)=0.3 and 1-0.3=0.7
The third value is min(0.8,0.6)=0.6 and 1-0.6=0.4
The fourth value is min(0.5,0.3)=0.3 and 1-0.3=0.7
The last value is min(0.1,0.2)=0.1 and 1-0.1=0.9
The only option which has got the values 0.9,0.7,0.4,0.7 and 0.9, although the fourth value is given as 0.8 instead of 0.7 is option A. So the answer is option A.


This model was created by the International Organization for Standardisation(ISO). This provides a framework for communication between any two networks. There are 7 layers in this model. The lowest is the physical layer and the highest one is the application layer.The purpose and design issues of each of the 7 layers are different. Each layer performs a particular activity concerned with the task of communication between devices. Although I will be giving you a concise explanation for the design issues of each layer, go through the following diagram well. It explains a lot about the different layers of OSI.

Following image taken from google images.

Following are the different layers of the OSI model and their purpose.

This layer provides network services to user applications. It consists of a set of protocols that define specific user-oriented applications such as e-mails, file transfers and virtual terminals. Some of the protocols used in this layer are TELNET(Virtual terminal),FTP(File transfer),E-mail(SMTP and POP), and also HTTP.

This layer is responsible for how the data looks or is formatted. It is concerned with the syntax and semantics of data getting transmitted. Data compression, encryption and decryption happen at this layer. In practice, this layer is usually incorporated with the application layer.

Provides for how two devices establish, maintain and manage a connection. Also responsible for enforcing the rules of dialog,synchronising the flow of data and reestablishing a connection in the event a failure occurs.

Ensures error-free delivery of data. Accepts data from the session layer, partitions the data into smaller packets, passes them to the network layer and ensures that the data arrives correctly at the destination.

Responsible for end-to-end routing or switching of data using intermediate routers.

This layer groups the bits that are received(or to be transmitted)into what are called as frames. This layer provides for error detection, framing and flow control. Also handles lost, damaged or duplicate frames.

This is the lowest layer of the OSI reference model. This layer is responsible for the actual transmission of bits from one end to another.

The message to be transmitted is referred by different terms in different layers. Let us go through them.
7. Application layer - Message
6. Presentation layer - Message
5. Session layer - Message
4. Transport layer - Message
3. Network layer - packets
2. Data link layer - Frames
1. Physical layer - Bits


1. Match the following:
(a) Physical layer (i) Allow resources to network access
(b) Data link layer (ii) Move packets from one destination to another
(c) Network layer (iii) Process to process message delivery
(d) Transport layer (iv) Transmission of bit stream
(e) Application layer (v) Formation of frames

Codes: a b c d e
(A) iv v ii iii i
(B) v iv i ii iii
(C) i iii ii v iv
(D) i ii iv iii v

June 2014 - Paper II Q.No 5
Ans:- A
Explanation:- If you find many options confusing choose one which you are very confident and about and then compare the rest of the options. Here, Transmission of bit streams is the work of the physical layer is something which one can be very sure about. So, a is matched to iv. There is only one option which does that and it is A. So just compare the rest of the codes and confirm that they are right. Data link layer is formation of frames. Network layer move packets from one destination to another. Transport layer is process to process message delivery and finally Application layer is allow resources to network access. So the correct answer is A.

2. Which layers of the OSI reference model are host-to-host layers?
(A) Transport, session, presentation, application
(B) Network, transport, session, presentation
(C) Data link, network, transport, session
(D) Physical, data link, network, transport
June 2014-Paper III
Ans:- A
Explanation:- The host-to-host layers are the four from the upper layers. Application, presentation, session, transport. The last three are referred to as media layers.

3. Encryption and decryption is the responsibility of _____layer.
(A) Physical
(B) Network
(C) Application
(D) Data link
December 2013 - Paper II
Ans:- C
Explanation:- Since the presentation layer is not available as an option, the right answer is Application. In the explanation above for Presentation layer, there is a mention that in practice it is combined with Application. So the right answer is C.

4. Which layer of OSI reference model is responsible for decomposition of messages and generation of sequence numbers to ensure correct re-composition from end to end of the network?
(A) Physical
(B) Data link
(C) Transport
(D) Application
December 2013 - Paper III
Explanation:- Actually physical, data link and application are completely ruled out for the above question and so the right answer is C.

There are many more questions from the same topic which will be covered later.

RSA Algorithm

Using RSA algorithm, what is the value of cipher text C, if the plain text M = 5 and p = 3, q = 11 & d = 7 ?
(A) 33
(B) 5
(C ) 25
(D )26

Ans:- D


Given p=3,q=11. n=(p X q) = (3 X 11)=33
   m=(p-1)X(q-1) = (2 X 10)=20
Find a small odd integer e, that is relatively prime to m.
If e=3, then GCD(3,20)=1. e should be small and prime and so we let e=3.
d is given, d=7.
Public key = (e,n). (Values of e and n are known).
To encrypt a message, we apply the public key to the function
E(s) = se(mod n),
where s is the given message and e and n represent the public key integer pair. In the above question, the plain text M = 5. Plain text needs to be encrypted using the above formula.
E(s) = se(mod n)
   =53(mod 33)
   = 125 (mod 33)
   = 26
As a result, the encrypted message E(s) = 26. This is what gets transmitted.